The modern electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity to the general public and to industry. Commercial distribution of electrical power began in 1882 when electricity was generated for electric lighting. In the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns led to regulation of the industry. What was once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas, reliable and economical electrical power has become an essential aspect for the normal functioning of all elements of developed culture!
history of electricity
In early Greece, it was discovered that electron (amber), when rubbed, acquired the power to attract low density materials. The widespread use of electricity for heat, light and power depended on the development of mechanical methods of production. During the 17th and 18th centuries, static electricity was found to be distinct from electric currents. Electricity can be positive or negative when charged bodies repel or attract each other, distinguishing conductors from non-conductors.
In 1754 John Canton devised an instrument for measuring electricity based on the repulsion of like-charged pith suspended by wires, and this was later standardized and redesigned as the gold-leaf electroscope. Benjamin Franklin identified the electrical discharge principle of lightning. This led to the invention of the “lightning rod”. In Italy, Allesandro Volta, a natural scientist, discovered that electricity was shunted when alternating metal plates of silver or copper and zinc contacted in a solution. The significance of this discovery was that it provided a source of direct electrical current. The original voltaic energy battery gave impetus to the experimental study of electricity. Within months, laboratories produced electric batteries, converting the energy released in chemical reactions.
In 1820, the Danish physicist HC Oersted described the magnetic field surrounding a conductor carrying an electric current. The relationship between the strength of a magnetic field and its electric current establishes that a continuous conductor in a magnetic field causes electric currents to flow. From 1834 rotary coil generators were commercially manufactured in London. The first generators produced alternating currents. The conversion of alternating energy into direct electric currents was solved via a mechanical commutator and rectangular coils that rotated in a magnetic field. The maximum tension in each coil was generated successively, smoothing out irregularities at a given rotational speed providing a constant tension.
In 1825 electromagnets were used as an alternative to permanent magnets by the founder of the first English electrical journal, William Sturgeon. Electromagnets possessed enough residual magnetism in their iron cores to provide the magnetic field needed to start the output of an electrical generator. The electric generator became an autonomous machine that only needed to be rotated to produce electrical energy. The application of a steam engine to rotate the armature generated enough electricity to power the arc lamps in the headlights, thus bringing the large-scale use of electricity closer.
Robert Hammond in December 1881 demonstrated the new electric light in the town of Brighton, Sussex, UK, during a trial period. The success of this installation allowed Hammond to give this business both a commercial and legal basis, as a number of traders wanted to use the new electric light. Thus, the Hammond Electricity Supply Co. Was started.
An armature using a continuous winding of copper wire increased the possibilities of using arc lamps for street lighting. Arc lamps were developed after the discovery that a spark between two pieces of carbon creates a brilliant light.
Inventors Thomas A. Edison and Sir Joseph Swan developed incandescent lamps for household use in the 1870s, and an incandescent incandescent lamp used electric current. Local electricity generation evolved into large centralized distribution utilities, and excess electricity was sold to local consumers. Early in 1882, Edison opened the world’s first steam-powered power station at Holborn Viaduct in London, where he had entered into an agreement with the City Corporation for a period of three months to supply street lighting. Over time, he had supplied electric light to a number of local consumers. The method of supply was direct current (DC). While the 1882 Godalming and Holborn Viaduct Scheme closed after a few years, the Brighton Scheme continued and supply was in 1887 made available 24 hours a day. In 1889, the London Electricity Supply Corporation power station provided high voltage by operating four 10,000 horsepower steam engines to power 10,000 volt alternators.
The economic advantages of power stations to generate high-voltage electricity to serve large areas have brought new practical and economic problems of distribution and, consequently, new innovations. By the end of the 19th century, underground power distribution systems had color-coded cables. Each strand was identified in this way, a major consideration as the power grid beneath city streets has become more complex.
In the mid-twentieth century, electricity was considered a “natural monopoly”, effective only if a small number of organizations participated in the market; In some regions, vertically integrated companies ensured all stages from production to retail, and only government supervision regulated the rate of return and cost structure.
Electric power industry
Since the 1990s, many regions have dismantled electricity generation and distribution to provide a more competitive electricity market. While these markets can be abused with negative impacts on price and reliability for consumers, generally competitive generation of electric power leads to worthwhile improvements and inefficiencies. However, transmission and distribution are more difficult issues because returns on investment are not as easy to find.
It was later that year, in September 1882, that Edison opened the Pearl Street Power Station in New York and again it was DC power. It was for this reason that production was near or at the consumer’s premises as Edison had no means of voltage conversion. The voltage chosen for any electrical system is a compromise. For a given transmitted power, increasing the voltage reduces the current and therefore the thickness of wire required. Unfortunately, this also increases the danger of direct contact and increases the insulation thickness required. Additionally, some load types were difficult or impossible to operate with higher voltages. The overall effect was that Edison’s system required power plants to be within a mile of consumers. While it might work in city centers, it would be unable to economically supply suburban areas with electricity.
Electric Power Industry Organization
The electric power industry is generally divided into four processes. These are electricity generation such as a power plant, electricity transmission, electricity distribution, and electricity retail. In many countries, power companies own the entire infrastructure, from power plants to transmission and distribution infrastructure.
Power generation industry
All forms of electricity generation have positive and negative aspects. Technology will probably end up declaring the most preferred shapes, but in a market economy, options with lower overall costs will generally be chosen above other sources. It is not yet clear which form can best meet the necessary energy demands or which process can best meet the demand for electricity. There are indications that renewable energy and distributed generation are becoming more viable in economic terms. A diverse mix of generation sources reduces the risk of electricity price spikes.
Electric power transmission industry
Electrical power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power station, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines that facilitate this movement are called the transmission network. This is distinct from local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is generally referred to as electrical power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the “electrical grid” in North America, or simply “the grid”. In the UK, India, Malaysia and New Zealand, the grid is known as the National Grid.
Electric power is transmitted over overhead lines like these, as well as underground high voltage cables
Electric power distribution industry
The distribution of electrical energy is the last step in the supply of electrical energy; it transports electricity from the transmission network to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission network and step down the transmission voltage to a medium voltage between 2 kV and 35 kV using transformers. Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located close to the customer premises. Distribution transformers step the voltage down again to the in-use voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment, or household appliances.
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Creation date Wednesday, September 30, 2020 Views 1329