The construction industry produces a wide range of products and the companies working in the field of construction are just as diverse. The construction industry can be divided into three construction sectors, namely building, infrastructure and industry. They can be categorized into residential, non-residential and engineering projects. The construction activity can be carried out within the framework of a private or public company.
The following three fundamental sectors of the construction industry provide economic and social infrastructure to all sectors of the economy.
1. Construction of buildings
Constructing buildings is the process of adding structures to areas of land. Typical construction activities are undertaken by the owner of the property and in some cases the land may be compulsorily purchased from the owner for public use. Building construction is generally divided into residential and non-residential. The vast majority of building construction work involves small renovations, such as adding a room or renovating a bathroom. Often, the property owner acts as the laborer, payer, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include certain elements in common – design, finance, estimating and legal considerations.
Commercial building construction is procured privately or publicly using various delivery methods including cost estimate, firm offer, negotiated price, traditional management, contract management, construction management at risk, design and construction and design-build.
2. Infrastructure construction
Infrastructure, also called heavy civil engineering or heavy engineering, includes major public works, dams, bridges, highways, railways, water or sewage, and utility distribution. Civil engineering covers the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and natural environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, tunnels, airports, utility networks water and sewer, pipelines and railroads.
3. Industrial building
Industrial construction, although it represents only a small part of the whole construction industry, is a very important component. Industrial construction includes offshore construction (mainly of energy facilities), mines and quarries, refineries, chemical processing, power generation, mills and manufacturing plants.
The owners of these projects are usually large, for-profit industrial corporations. These companies can be found in industries such as infrastructure, power transmission and distribution, metallurgy and material handling, medicine, petroleum, chemical, power generation, manufacturing, etc. The processes of these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning, cost estimating, design and construction. As in building and heavy/highway construction, this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure the success of a project often undertaken by large construction companies.
Types of construction projects
Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct and maintain the project. In general, there are three main types of construction projects:
1. Residential projects
Residential projects are projects around houses, housing estates, buildings, and garages. Residential construction can be undertaken by individual landowners (self-build), by specialist house builders, by property developers, by general contractors, or by social or public housing providers (e.g. local authorities, housing associations). Residential construction practices, technologies and resources must comply with local building regulations and codes of practice.
2. Non-residential projects
These projects include large and small commercial buildings, including stores, churches, schools and hospitals. Depending on the type of building, the construction of non-residential buildings can be contracted out to a wide range of private and public organisations, including local authorities, educational and religious bodies, transport companies, retailers, hoteliers, real estate developers, institutions and other private private organizations. companies. Most construction in these sectors is carried out by general contractors.
3. Engineering projects
Engineering projects include the construction of bridges, roads, reservoirs, major public works, dams, highways, railways, water or sewage, and utility distribution. Civil engineering covers the design, construction and maintenance of these large projects.
Classification of construction projects
Construction projects can further be classified as public and private.
1. Private construction and renovation
This is construction work carried out for private owners, paid for with private funds. As cities become saturated with buildings, renovation and restructuring will become a common part of building trades. These construction projects can also be small renovations or repair works, where the owner can act as the designer, payer and laborer for the entire project.
2. Public projects and renovation
These projects are done for federal, state, or local government agencies and usually funded with tax money, bonds, or other public funds. In the United States, the road and bridge systems needed repair and needed to keep the vast transportation network in usable condition.
Activities at the construction project
Each agency associated with the sub-group of activities above has its own particular organization compatible with the nature of its workload. The details will depend on the size, geography of the area of interest, the nature of the activities and the complexity of the issues it faces. Broadly speaking, the core activities of a construction project can be grouped into three main categories:
1. Design and planning
Construction planning is the specific process used by construction managers to define how they will manage and execute a construction project, from designing the structure, to ordering materials, to deploying workers and subcontractors. contractors to perform various tasks. Construction planning involves identifying all of the steps required to build a structure, breaking them down into defined activities, ordering those steps in a logical fashion, and determining materials, labor, and equipment. required.
2. Execution of the works
Construction Execution refers to the standards, methods and practices used during the construction phase of a project to successfully deliver the object under construction. Directing the workforce, meeting all regulatory requirements, and overseeing a project from development initiation to completion are part of the execution phase. The ultimate goal of construction is to deliver the project to the full satisfaction of the client’s requirements both in terms of functionality and budget.
3. Inspection and monitoring
Inspection and supervision are necessary at every stage to ensure that the required tasks are performed to complete the construction activities. Progress is continuously monitored and changes are made accordingly. The construction project manager spends most of the time in the follow-up stage and depending on the information he obtains redirects the tasks and keeps control of the project.
The use of various new technologies and the deployment of project management strategies have made it possible to undertake large-scale projects. On its way forward, the industry must overcome a number of challenges. However, the industry still faces major challenges, including housing, disaster-resistant construction, water management and public transport.
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Creation date Thursday, September 24, 2020 Hits 9152